The Declaration of The Báb

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Baha’is around the world celebrate the 22nd May 1844 as the day of the declaration of The Báb, who was the forerunner of Baha’u’llah the founder of the Baha’i Faith.

Baha’is view The Báb as a Messenger of God, who had a role that can be likened to John The Baptist (who told of the coming of Christ) in heralding the coming of the latest Manifestation of God: Baha’u’llah.

The events surrounding the declaration of The Báb have been told in many ways, but perhaps the most widely read is the account in The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl’s Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá’í Revelation. This book was written by Nabil (one of the Letters of the Living), and chronicles the early days of the revelation of The Báb and Baha’u’llah.

The story begins in 1783, when a learned man named Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá’í (1743-1826) began, at the age of 40, to travel through Persia teaching that the advent of a great day was drawing near, the day that would see the advent of the Qá’im, the Promised One of Islám. During this time, there was great discontent in the East as certain prominent clerics practiced disunity and behaved in a way that was damaging Islam. As he spread this message, his knowledge and wisdom impressed many, who were eager to learn from him. Among these was a gifted young man named Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí (1793-1843), who became Shaykh Ahmad’s favoured pupil and eventual successor.

After his teacher’s death in 1826, Siyyid Kázim continued to spread the word of the advent of the Promised One, but opposition to the message was rising. In an effort to enlist the voices of some well-respected authorities, he therefore sent one of his pupils, Mullá Husayn, to relate these teachings to the authorities and answer their questions. In this task, Mullá Husayn was successful. Yet opposition to message grew and caused him considerable hardship as his enemies used every means at their disposal to discredit him and if possible put his life in jeopardy. Throughout this time, however, he continued to steadfastly announce the coming revelation, although when pressed to reveal the identity of the Promised One, he always refused, often adding that even if he did reveal this secret, none would be able to accept it. Shortly before his death in 1843, he instructed his students to go out and search for the Promised One, saying He was about to be revealed.

It was this quest that led Mullá Husayn, his brother, and a nephew to the city of Shíráz on May 22, 1844. Having traveled far in his search, Mullá Husayn sent his companions to the mosque to await him while he wandered awhile, promising to rejoin them for evening prayers. While walking outside the gates of the city a few hours before sunset, he was unexpectedly greeted by a young man. Mullá Husayn thought this man must be a disciple of Siyyid Kázim who had heard of his arrival in Shíráz and had come to welcome him. Even so, the manner of the greeting was astonishing. He described the expressions of affection and loving kindness as well as the gentle and compelling manner in which the young man (The Báb) spoke to him.

He accompanied the young man to his house, where tea was served and preparations begun for the evening prayer. Mullá Husayn then relates the astonishing occurrences that followed.

Overwhelmed with His acts of extreme kindness, I arose to depart. “The time for evening prayer is approaching,” I ventured to observe. “I have promised my friends to join them at that hour in the [mosque].” With extreme courtesy and calm He replied: “You must surely have made the hour of your return conditional upon the will and pleasure of God. It seems that His will has decreed otherwise. You need have no fear of having broken your pledge.” His dignity and self-assurance silenced me. I renewed my ablutions and prepared for prayer. He, too, stood beside me and prayed…. It was about an hour after sunset when my youthful Host began to converse with me. “Whom, after Siyyid Kázim,” He asked me, “do you regard as his successor and your leader?” “At the hour of his death,” I replied, “our departed teacher insistently exhorted us to forsake our homes, to scatter far and wide, in quest of the promised Beloved. I have, accordingly, journeyed to Persia, have arisen to accomplish his will, and am still engaged in my quest.” “Has your teacher,” He further enquired, “given you any detailed indications as to the distinguishing features of the Qá’im?” “Yes,” I replied, “He is of a pure lineage, is of illustrious descent, and of the seed of Fátimih. As to His age, He is more than twenty and less than thirty. He is endowed with innate knowledge. He is of medium height, abstains from smoking, and is free from bodily deficiency.” He paused for a while and then with vibrant voice declared: “Behold, all these signs are manifest in Me!” (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 55-77)

The young man, whose name was Siyyid Alí Muhammád, proceeded to demonstrate that each of the signs given by Siyyid Kázim were indeed applicable to Him. Yet Mullá Husayn was unsure. He had prepared two tests for anyone claiming to be the Promised One, and decided to place them before Siyyid Alí Muhammád in order to prove the matter one way or the other. Those tests were as follows:

The first test was to produce an in depth treatise (detailed commentary) regarding concealed teachings of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. The second was to unravel the mysteries of the Súrih of Joseph (Yusuf) .This was a chapter of the Quran. (However he only uttered the first test to The Báb)

Mullá Husayn recounted the following:

I had previously requested Siyyid Kázim, in private, to write a commentary on that same Súrih, which he refused, saying: “This is, verily, beyond me. He, that great One, who comes after me will, unasked, reveal it for you. That commentary will constitute one of the weightiest testimonies of His truth, and one of the clearest evidences of the loftiness of His position.” (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 59)

So Mullá Husayn asked his Host to comment on the treatise he had written. The result of that request only further astonished him:

He graciously complied with my wish. He opened the book, glanced at certain passages, closed it, and began to address me. Within a few minutes He had, with characteristic vigour and charm, unravelled all its mysteries and resolved all its problems. Having to my entire satisfaction accomplished, within so short a time, the task I had expected Him to perform, He further expounded to me certain truths which could be found neither in the reported sayings of the Imáms of the Faith nor in the writings of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. These truths, which I had never heard before, seemed to be endowed with refreshing vividness and power…. He then proceeded to say: “Now is the time to reveal the commentary on the Súrih of Joseph.” He took up His pen and with incredible rapidity revealed the entire Súrih of Mulk, the first chapter of His commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 59)

Mullá Husayn described that The Báb did not pause once until the entire Súrih of Mulk was completed. Finally when he begged leave to depart he recounted the following:

“This night,” He (The Báb) declared, “this very hour will, in the days to come, be celebrated as one of the greatest and most significant of all festivals. Render thanks to God for having graciously assisted you to attain your heart’s desire, and for having quaffed from the sealed wine of His utterance.” (The Dawn-Breakers, p.62)

From that day forward, Siyyid Alí Muhammád refered to Himself as The Báb (The Gate) and Mullá Husayn became His first disciple. Although the Báb was indeed the Promised One foretold by Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim, He taught that He was but the Herald of another Messenger (Baha‘u’llah) who would appear very soon after Him, and the power of whose revelation would far exceed any previously sent down by God. The day the Báb declared His mission is now, as He had promised, celebrated by Bahá’ís around the world as “one of the greatest and most significant of all festivals.”